Индия, Китай и Япония през 19 век
In the 19th century china hadn’t got any information about what is happening outside its territory. According to their beliefs China was the only one civilization in the world and its emperor was the only one representative of the God on the earth. The west tradesmen could trade but only with the west harbors’ and in Canton province. China didn’t want to have any diplomatic relationships with the countries from Europe. In the 30s of the 19th century a conflict appeared between China and the representatives of the British trading companies. The reason was the opium, and the emperor has forbidden it because most of his slaves and people became addicted to that kind of drugs. On the 25th 1839 two English frigates in the region of Canton attacked 29 battle djonkies(kind of boat with sales but its back side was wide and high).So the first opium war began. In that battle the two English frigates defeated all the Chinese djonkie and that showed the Chinese that they were too far away from the civilization. 29 August 1842 in Nanking the first treaty between china and England for the end of the Chinese isolation was signed. England received Honkong and the privileges to trade in four centers on the coast. As a resulted this Shanghai became a major trading centre for the Europeans. There were also catholic missioners who spread the Christianity among the territories of China. In 1854 China was the in the edge of a new conflict with England as a result of the Taiping uprising. The country was in chaos up to the beginning of the 60s of that century. At that time the Russians used the period if misunderstanding in the Chinese country to settle along the Amur River and the Usuri River. So the Russians received huge territories without any fights. And there they established Vladivostok.
So in the end of those problems the whole Chinese country was opened for trading and diplomacy was allowed.
In 1600 at Sekigahara the shogun Tokugawa ended the feudal rebellions and united the country. The shogunat’s idea was simple – keeping the peace with letting any reforms and foreign influence. The society was divided into rulers and ruled- farmers which took care for everything. The emperor was week and has no power and everything was in the hands of the shogun, who was supported by the aristocracy, who counted on the samurais and their families, who were about 2million people. The samurais were allowed to wear weapons which differed them from the other rich peasants. They also trusted in their own codex of honor called bushido. Till 1853 Japan was a isolated country. The only people who could enter it and only in the harbor Nagasaki were Chinese people and Dutch tradesmen. The Japanese people could leave the country, to build big ships, to become Christians. But in the middle of the 19th century the country entered a deep crisis. The western countries came very fast and the technology was crushing. In July 1853 the American commodore Mathew Perry entered Edo (Tokyo) with four big ships and ended the Japanese isolation. In 1867 the shogun gave the power to the emperor Muzihito (1852-1912). An epoch of reforms began called Meidzi. It had to develop the industry. Feudal and capitol powers were used to make from Japan a modern country. The samurais lost their power and were replaced by the bourgeoisie. In the next 49 years Japan won the war with Russia (1904-1905) and was said to be a great power.
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Like china and Japan, India had its own way of life. In the middle of the 18th century the country was divided into 3000 small kingdoms which fought against each other. Than the English people came and the reforms which they made in the period 1750-1850 we very serious. In the middle of the 19th century the English were rulers of India with traditions and rules. The peace, the respect and the private property were the good things.
The differences were huge. The rejection to live like Europeans and to behave the same way let to an uprising in the middle if the 19th century, known as the rebellion of the sepaits( local Indians who were in the British army), which were crushed very hard. After the uprising England managed to set up law and order the colony and political equation, as well (1857-1947).